It is generally accepted that emotions are multifaceted phenomena that involve several interrelated psychological processes. These processes include subjective feelings affective component of emotion , cognitions cognitive component , motivational tendencies motivational component , physiological processes physiological component , and expressive behavior expressive component. For instance, a student experiencing pre- exam anxiety may feel uneasy and nervous affective , worry about possible failure cognitive , want to flee the impending exam situation motivational , have sweaty palms physiological , and furrow her brow and pull her lips backward expressive component.
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The selection of emotional stimuli for experimental studies is generally divided into two streams: 1 discrete emotional, and 2 dimensional emotions of valence, arousal, dominance and familiarity Russell, ; Barrett, Appropriate selection of emotional stimuli is another important consideration that ensures experimental tasks are suitable for the investigation of emotional processing in learning and memory. Furthermore, the type of stimulus determines stimulus presentation duration, especially for experimental tasks involving the induction of emotions. There are numerous self-assessment techniques used to measure individual emotional states Bradley and Lang, The SAM is a non-verbal pictorial assessment technique directly measures emotional responses to emotional stimuli for valence, arousal, and dominance.
The SD scale consists of a set of bipolar adjective pairs for the subjective rating of image stimuli. If a study does not seek to assess distinct emotional states but rather involves the assessment of two primary dimensions of emotion positive and negative valence , then the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS is a recommended method Watson et al.
Thus, selection of the most appropriate self-assessment technique is an important part of the experimental design but can also become an overwhelming task. Although functional neuroimaging works to identify the neural correlates of emotional states, technologies such as deep brain stimulation DBS and connectivity maps might provide new opportunities to seek understanding of emotions and its corresponding psychological responses. The neuroscience of cognition and emotion requires appropriate task designs to accomplish specific study objectives Amin and Malik, Environmental factors, ethical issues, memory paradigms, cognitive task difficulty, and emotional induction task intensity must be considered for this.
Numerous neuroimaging studies cited thus far have indicated that emotions influence memory processes, to include memory encoding, memory consolidation, and memory retrieval. Emotional attentional and motivational components might explain why emotional content exhibits privileged information processing. Significant emotional modulation affects memory consolidation in the amygdala, and emotional content also appears to mediate memory encoding and retrieval in the PFC, leading to slow rates of memory lapse accompanied by the accurate recall.
Moreover, cognitive and emotional interactions also appear to modulate additional memory-related CNS regions, such as the frontal, posterior parietal and visual cortices. The latter are involved in attentional control, association information, and the processing of visual information, respectively. Neuroimaging findings also indicate the involvement of the PFC in emotional processing by indirectly influencing WM and semantic memory Kensinger and Corkin, This is reflected by the involvement of the DLPFC in WM and the role played by VLPFC in semantic processing, both of which have been found to enhance or impair semantic encoding task performance when emotion is involved.
Various parts of the lateral PFC ventrolateral, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortical regions are suspected of having key roles that support memory retrieval Simons and Spiers, All of these findings suggest that PFC-MTL interactions underlie effective semantic memory encoding and thus strategically mediate information processing with increased transfer to the hippocampus, consequently enhancing memory retrieval.
Accordingly, learning strategies that emphasize emotional factors are more likely to result in long-term knowledge retention.
Importance of Emotions in Teaching and Learning ( Words)
This consideration is potentially useful in the design of educational materials for academic settings and informed intelligent tutoring systems. Based on numerous previous findings, future research might take emotional factors more seriously and more explicitly in terms of their potential impact on learning.
By monitoring the emotional state of students, the utilization of scientifically derived knowledge of stimulus selection can be particularly useful in the identification of emotional states that advance learning performance and outcomes in educational settings. In addition, the identification of emotional impact on learning and memory potentially has direct implications for healthy individuals as well as patients with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, autism, mania, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD Panksepp, a. Depression and anxiety are also associated with negative emotions such as hopelessness, anxiety, apathy, attention deficit, lack of motivation, and motor and mental insufficiencies.
Likewise, neuroscience studies report that decreased activation of the dorsal limbic the anterior and posterior cingulate as well as in the prefrontal, premotor and parietal cortices causes attentional disturbance, while increased neural activation in the ventral paralimbic region the subgenual cingulate, anterior insula, hypothalamus and caudate is associated with emotional and motivational disorders Mayberg, Substantial evidence has established that emotional events are remembered more clearly, accurately and for longer periods of time than are neutral events. Emotional memory enhancement appears to involve the integration of cognitive and emotional neural networks, in which activation of the amygdala enhances the processing of emotionally arousing stimuli while also modulating enhanced memory consolidation along with other memory-related brain regions, particularly the amygdala, hippocampus, MTL, as well as the visual, frontal and parietal cortices.
Similarly, activation of the PFC enhances cognitive functions, such as strategic and semantic processing that affect WM and also promote the establishment of LTM. Previous studies have primarily used standardized emotional visual, or auditory stimuli such as pictures, words, facial expression, and film clips, often based on the IAPS, ANEW, and POFA databases for emotional pictures, words and facial expressions, respectively. Further studies have typically focused on the way individuals memorize intentional or incidental episodic memory paradigm emotional stimuli in controlled laboratory settings.
To our knowledge, there are few objective studies that employed brain-mapping techniques to examine semantic memory of learning materials using subject matter in the education context. Furthermore, influences derived from emotional factors in human learning and memory remains unclear as to whether positive emotions facilitate learning or negative emotions impair learning and vice versa.
Thus, several remaining questions should be addressed in future studies, including i the impact of emotion on semantic knowledge encoding and retrieval, ii psychological and physiological changes associated with semantic learning and memory, and iii the development of methods that incorporate emotional and motivational aspects that improve educational praxes, outcomes, and instruments. The results of studies on emotion using educational learning materials can indeed provide beneficial information for informed designs of new educational courses that obtain more effective teaching and help establish better informed learning environments.
Moreover, the SEEKING system generates positive subjective emotional states-positive expectancy, enthusiastic exploration, and hopefulness, apparently, initiates learning and memory in the brain. CMT drafted this manuscript. All authors reviewed and approved this manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
We gratefully thank Frontiers in Psychology, Specialty Section Emotion Sciences reviewers and the journal Associate Editor, for their helpful input and feedback on the content of this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Aug Chai M. Tyng , Hafeez U. Amin , Mohamad N. Saad , and Aamir S. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Malik, ym. This article was submitted to Emotion Science, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology.
Received Nov 29; Accepted Aug The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Keywords: emotional valence, arousal, learning, memory, prefrontal cortex PFC , medial temporal lobe MTL , amygdala, neuroimaging.
Introduction Emotional experiences are ubiquitous in nature and important and perhaps even critical in academic settings, as emotion modulates virtually every aspect of cognition. Emotions, Moods, Feelings, Affects and Drives Subjective terms used in affective neuroscience include emotions, moods, feelings, affects and drives. A review of 92 putative definitions and nine skeptical statements Kleinginna and Kleinginna, suggests a definition with a rather broad consensus: simple. Recent Evidence Regarding the Role of Emotion in Learning and Memory The impact of emotion on learning processes is the focus of many current studies.
The Evolutionary Framework of Emotion and The Seven Primary Emotional Systems Evolution built our higher minds the faculty of consciousness and thoughts on a foundation of primary-process of emotional mechanism that preprogrammed executive action systems the prototype emotions rely on cognitive processing interpretation and appraisal in the organisms attempt to decipher the type of situation they might be in; in other words, how to deal with emotionally challenging situations, whether it is a play situation or a threat situation where RAGE and FEAR might be the appropriate system to recruit.
Open in a separate window. Primary-Process Emotions Prototype Emotional States The emotional operating system is an inherited and genetically encoded circuitry that anticipates key survival and homeostatic needs. Tertiary-Process Emotions Higher Cognitive Functions Higher cognitive functions operate within the cortical regions, including the frontal cortex for awareness and consciousness functions such as thinking, planning, emotional regulation and free-will intention-to-act , which mediate emotional feelings.
Amygdala—Hippocampus Interactions The findings of previous studies suggest that the amygdala is involved in emotional arousal processing and modulation of the memory processes encoding and storage that contribute to the emotional enhancement of memory McGaugh et al.
Table 1 The prefrontal cortex PFC sub-regions, corresponding Brodmann areas, and associated cognitive-emotional functions. Controls social-emotional interaction to coordinate rapid action selection processes, detection of emotional conflicts and inhibition of emotionally driven responses.
Disruption leads to loss of control over automatic emotional tendencies and more errors in rule-driven responses Volman et al. The pursuit of higher behavioral goals, with specialized roles in the explicit processing of internal mental states in WM, relational integration, and memory retrieval Ramnani and Owen, Reward processing Haber and Knutson, Emotion regulation Ochsner and Gross, Emotion regulation Opialla et al.
Right VLPFC supports memory encoding and retrieval of visuospatial stimuli, action imitation and motor inhibition Levy and Wagner, Dorsal-caudal mPFC involved in appraisal-expression of negative emotion; ventral-rostral PFC generates emotional regulation-responses Etkin et al. OFC 11, 12, 14 Decision making Bechara et al. Emotional processing and responses Northoff et al. Reward processing and reinforcement learning Rolls, Effects Deriving From Different Modalities of Emotional Stimuli on Learning and Memory As discussed above, evidence indicates the neural mechanisms underlying the emotional processing of valence and arousal involve the amygdala and PFC, where the amygdala responds to emotionally arousing stimuli and the PFC responds to the emotional valence of non-arousing stimuli.
Table 2 Comparison of different emotional stimulus categories. ERP Frontal, central and posterior regions Faces enhanced N amplitude reflecting that spatial attention modulates face encoding at lateral posterior electrodes. However, N was insensitive to emotional expression.
Reported the importance of valence and arousal in emotion-related ERP effects. Neuroimaging Techniques for the Investigation of Emotional-Cognitive Interactions The brain regions associated with cognitive-emotional interactions can be studied with different functional neuroimaging techniques fMRI, PET, and fNIRS to examine hemodynamic responses indirect measurement. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a widely used functional neuroimaging tool for mapping of brain activation as it provides a high spatial resolution a few millimeters.
Positron Emission Tomography PET Positron emission tomography is another functional neuroimaging tool that maps CNS physiology and neural activation by measuring glucose metabolism or regional cerebral blood flow rCBF. Electroencephalography EEG Electroencephalography obtains high temporal resolution in milliseconds, portable, less expensive, and non-invasive techniques by attaching scalp electrodes to record brain electrical activity.
Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy fNIRS Functional near-infrared spectroscopy is an emerging and relatively low-cost imaging technique that is also portable and non-invasive. Factors Affecting the Effect of Emotion on Learning and Memory The preceding section described neuroimaging techniques used to examine brain responses to emotional stimuli during WM processing leading to LTM. Individual Differences A number of studies have reported numerous influences in addition to a range of individual differences in emotional processing.
Age-Related Differences Studies have also shown that older adults are associated with the greater familiarity with psychological stress and emotional experiences, thus causing positivity biases in emotional processing and better emotional control than in younger adults Urry and Gross, ; Allard and Kensinger, Emotional Stimulus Selection The selection of emotional stimuli for experimental studies is generally divided into two streams: 1 discrete emotional, and 2 dimensional emotions of valence, arousal, dominance and familiarity Russell, ; Barrett, Self-assessment Techniques There are numerous self-assessment techniques used to measure individual emotional states Bradley and Lang, Neurocognitive Research Design The neuroscience of cognition and emotion requires appropriate task designs to accomplish specific study objectives Amin and Malik, Concluding Remarks, Open Questions, and Future Directions Substantial evidence has established that emotional events are remembered more clearly, accurately and for longer periods of time than are neutral events.
Author Contributions CMT drafted this manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Footnotes Funding.
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The Influences of Emotion on Learning and Memory
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Methodological Advances in Research on Emotion and Education
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