The Filaria (World Class Parasites)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Filaria (World Class Parasites) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Filaria (World Class Parasites) book. Happy reading The Filaria (World Class Parasites) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Filaria (World Class Parasites) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The Filaria (World Class Parasites) Pocket Guide.

For example, a study in the Gambia, which found that even without MDA, LF transmission may have been interrupted through the extensive and long-term decades use of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control [ 83 ]. A malaria eradication campaign in the Solomon Islands was also found to result in the interruption of LF transmission in the absence of MDA [ 84 ]. In addition, Nsakashalo-Senkwe et al. These studies highlight how the expansion of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control since [ 86 ], could have had a notable impact on LF transmission in some settings [ 87 ].

Due to the long-life expectancy of the adult worms and the delay between infection and morbidity, the use of vector control as a standalone strategy would result in a lag before any significant effect on the prevalence of infection and morbidity is seen [ 88 ].

1. Introduction

This finding is mainly because vector control programmes only reduce exposure to new infections and do not have a direct effect on the established infections within the host population. Although the established adult worms will die naturally within their hosts, this occurs slowly due to their long-life expectancy [ 88 ].

Recommended for you

However, in combination with MDA, vector control could potentially be beneficial in accelerating progress to elimination, preventing transmission hotspots and reducing the risk of the re-establishment of the transmission cycle from imported cases [ 82 , 87 , 88 , 89 ]. This indicates that in the context of economic evaluations, the true potential benefits of combining vector control with MDA are long-term - in contrast to additional short-term reductions in morbidity or infection. This means that economic evaluations of vector control would require a long-time horizon for the analysis and a model accounting for the possibility of elimination to capture its full long-term benefit.

It is noteworthy that the only study we identified evaluating the cost-effectiveness of integrating vector control with MDA which found that it did not appear to be cost-effective in the investigated setting [ 37 ] had only a five-year time horizon Table 1.

Due to this, the potential longer-term benefits of vector control were not necessarily fully captured. In the context of further economic evaluations of vector control for LF, it is essential to note that its benefit will be highly dependent on the local species of vector. For example, bednets will not be effective in areas where the predominant vector species bites during the day. This highlights the importance of not overgeneralizing the results of studies and policy in this area.

It is also important to consider issues relating to insecticide resistance and the additional benefits of vector control on other vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria [ 90 ]. As well as new interventions, we need to evaluate novel diagnostics and surveillance strategies. The importance of this research area is highlighted by a recent study which demonstrated resurgence of transmission six years after stopping MDA [ 91 ]. When considering new surveillance strategies, it is important to note the potential need to integrate surveillance for other NTDs such as STH [ 92 , 93 ].

Only one of the studies [ 20 ] we identified explicitly considered the cost of post-MDA surveillance. LF occurs across a wide and diverse range of epidemiological settings, making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the value of LF interventions as a whole from studies based in a single country or setting. Also, due to the different aims of the identified studies and the different approaches used, it can be difficult to directly compare the results of the different studies.

However, overall this systematic review highlights that the WHO recommended strategies for LF elimination are consistently found to be cost-effective or cost-saving across a wide range of settings and assumptions. However, there are several important research gaps that need to be addressed as we move forward towards the milestones and beyond.

These include the evaluation of alternative interventions such as IDA, anti- Wolbachia therapy and vector control. Furthermore, elements of the studies were not always clear, and at times important pieces of methodological information were not reported. Moving forward it would be beneficial if studies adhered more to standardised guidelines for reporting cost-effectiveness analysis - allowing easier comparison of the different studies results.

Ottesen EA. Lymphatic filariasis: treatment, control and elimination. Adv Parasitol. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: health impact after 8 years. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem.


  • Modern American Armor: Combat Vehicles of the United States Army Today.
  • Filariasis.
  • Managing Virtual Projects.
  • Quantifying the World: UN Ideas and Statistics (United Nations Intellectual History Project).
  • Background.
  • The Filaria!
  • Petrarch and the textual origins of interpretation?

Accessed 30 Nov World Health Organization. Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis. Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: progress report — and strategic plan — Accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases - A roadmap for implementation. Uniting to Combat NTDs. World Health Organisation.


  • Introduction.
  • Navigation menu.
  • CDC - Lymphatic Filariasis - Biology - Life Cycle of Wuchereria bancrofti.
  • The Filaria.

Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report, Wkly Epidemiol Rec. The third report: Country leadership and collaboration on NTDs. Can lymphatic filariasis be eliminated by ? Trends Parasitol. Three probable cases of Loa loa encephalopathy following ivermectin treatment for onchocerciasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. Provisional strategy for interrupting lymphatic filariasis transmission in loiasis-endemic countries: report of the meeting on lymphatic filariasis, malaria and integrated vector management.

Geneva: World Health Organisation; Dangerous reactions to treatment of onchocerciasis with diethylcarbamazine. Br Med J. Potential value of triple drug therapy with ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole IDA to accelerate elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in Africa. Tropical diseases targeted for elimination: chagas disease, lymphatic dilariasis, onchocerciasis, and leprosy.

Disease control priorities in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press; Investment success in public health: an analysis of the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the global Programme to eliminate lymphatic Filariasis. Clin Infect Dis. World Bank. World development report investing in health. Bureau of Labor Statistics. CPI Inflation Calculator. Modelling the health impact and cost-effectiveness of lymphatic filariasis eradication under varying levels of mass drug administration scale-up and geographic coverage.

BMJ Glob Health. The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the global Programme to eliminate lymphatic Filariasis — The health and economic benefits of the global Programme to eliminate lymphatic Filariasis — Infect Dis Poverty. Economic costs and benefits of a community-based lymphedema management program for lymphatic filariasis in Odisha state, India.

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis prevention, treatment, and control costs across diverse settings: a systematic review. Acta Trop. Morbidity management in the global Programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a review of the scientific literature. Filaria J. Treatment costs and loss of work time to individuals with chronic lymphatic filariasis in rural communities in south India. Tropical Med Int Health. The impact of lymphatic filariasis on labour inputs in southern India: results of a multi-site study.

Ann Trop Med Parasitol. The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in India. Parasitol Today. The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in northern Ghana.

Economic evaluations of lymphatic filariasis interventions: a systematic review and research needs

Economic costs of endemic non-filarial elephantiasis in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia. Productivity loss related to neglected tropical diseases eligible for preventive chemotherapy: a systematic literature review. Productivity costs in economic evaluations: past, present, future. The value of productivity: human-capital versus friction-cost method. Ann Rheum Dis. Cost-effectiveness in health and medicine. Modeling the impact and costs of semiannual mass drug administration for accelerated elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes. PLoS One. Cost-effectiveness of the use of vector control and mass drug administration, separately or in combination, against lymphatic filariasis. Contribution of pharmaceutical companies to the control of neglected tropical diseases. Lessons learned from developing an eradication investment case for lymphatic filariasis. Reaching the London declaration on neglected tropical diseases goals for onchocerciasis: an economic evaluation of increasing the frequency of ivermectin treatment in Africa.

Effect of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration with albendazole on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in Republic of the Congo. Lancet Infect Dis. Point-of-care quantification of blood-borne filarial parasites with a mobile phone microscope.

How to Cure The Diseases That Nobel-Winning Drugs Cannot

Sci Transl Med. Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp. Parasit Vectors. Lymphatic filariasis: Fact sheet. National mass drug administration costs for lymphatic filariasis elimination. Neglected tools for neglected diseases: mathematical models in economic evaluations.


  • Pop Goes to Court: Rock N Pops Greatest Court Battles.
  • Womens Ministry in the Local Church.
  • The Filaria | Thomas R. Klei | Springer.
  • Pathfinder Module: The Witchwar Legacy.

Cost-effectiveness of scaling up mass drug administration for the control of soil-transmitted helminths: a comparison of cost function and constant costs analyses. Cost and cost-effectiveness of soil-transmitted helminth treatment programmes: systematic review and research needs. Cost-effectiveness of triple drug administration TDA with praziquantel, ivermectin and albendazole for the prevention of neglected tropical diseases in Nigeria.

The cost of annual versus biannual community-directed treatment with ivermectin: Ghana as a case study.

How to Cure The Diseases That Nobel-Winning Drugs Cannot - The Atlantic

Benchmarks for the cost per person of mass treatment against neglected tropical diseases: a literature review and metaregression with web-based software application. Johns B, Baltussen R. Accounting for the cost of scaling-up health interventions. Health Econ. The costs of scaling up vaccination in the world's poorest countries. Health Aff Millwood.

Measles eradication versus measles control: an economic analysis. Vaccines Vaccin. Johns B, Torres TT. Costs of scaling up health interventions: a systematic review. Health Policy Plan. Sustaining progress towards NTD elimination: an opportunity to leverage lymphatic filariasis elimination programs to interrupt transmission of soil-transmitted helminths. Asymmetries of poverty: why global burden of disease valuations underestimate the burden of neglected tropical diseases.

The burden of mental health in lymphatic filariasis.

Associated Data

Depression and disability in people with podoconiosis: a comparative cross-sectional study in rural northern Ethiopia. Int Health. Are current cost-effectiveness thresholds for low- and middle-income countries useful? Examples from the world of vaccines. Thresholds for the cost-effectiveness of interventions: alternative approaches. Bull WHO. Country-level cost-effectiveness thresholds: initial estimates and the need for further research. The Filaria , volume five of World Class Parasites, is written for researchers, students and scholars who enjoy reading research that has a major impact on human health, or agricultural productivity, and against which we have no satisfactory defense.

It is intended to supplement more formal texts that cover taxonomy, life cycles, morphology, vector distribution, symptoms and treatment. It integrates vector, pathogen and host biology and celebrates the diversity of approach that comprises modern parasitological research. Thomas R. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Life Sciences Animal Sciences. World Class Parasites Free Preview. Buy eBook.

Leishmania Jay P. American Trypanosomiasis Kevin M. Schistosomiasis W.

Theileria Dirk Dobbelaere. The Geohelminths Celia Holland. Table of contents Preface. Lymphatic filarial infections: an introduction to the filariae; J. Bartholomay, B. Williams, S. Fischer, D. The Epidemiology of Filariasis Control; E. Wolbachia Bacterial Endosymbionts; M. Mackenzie, et al.

Vaccines For Filarial Infections; P. Keiser, T. About Thomas R. Klei Thomas R. Learn about new offers and get more deals by joining our newsletter. Sign up now.

admin