The Prefrontal Cortex (4th Edition)

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Introduction

Non-linear optimisation, aka Spatial nornalisation. Non-rigid registration using free-form deformations: application to breast MR images. Characterizing brain anatomical connections using diffusion weighted MRI and graph theory. Neuroimage ; 36 : — Neuroimage ; 40 : — Estimation of premorbid intelligence in Spanish people with the Word Accentuation Test and its application to the diagnosis of dementia. Brain Cogn ; 33 : — Frank LR. Characterization of anisotropy in high angular resolution diffusion-weighted MRI.

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Magn Reson Med ; 47 : — Anatomical abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia: bridging the gap between neuroimaging and neuropathology. Schizophr Bull ; 35 : — Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Schizophr Res ; : — Ashburner J , Friston KJ. Voxel-based morphometry—the methods. Neuroimage ; 11 : — A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in normal adult human brains. Neuroimage ; 14 : 21— The corpus callosum in schizophrenia-volume and connectivity changes affect specific regions.

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Conscious Cogn ; 14 : — Download references. Correspondence to E Pomarol-Clotet. To obtain permission to re-use content from this article visit RightsLink. Brain Structure and Function Human Brain Mapping Biological Psychiatry Brain and Behavior Journal of Sleep Research Article metrics. Advanced search.

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Skip to main content. Subjects Brain imaging Pathology Schizophrenia. Abstract Neuroimaging studies have found evidence of altered brain structure and function in schizophrenia, but have had complex findings regarding the localization of abnormality. Introduction Among the many lines of investigation undertaken to characterize the brain pathology of schizophrenia, one of the most productive has been neuroimaging. Methods Subjects The patient sample consisted of 32 schizophrenic patients recruited from two hospitals. Procedure All subjects underwent structural and functional MRI scanning in a single session, using the same 1.

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Results Demographic findings Demographic findings are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Demographic characteristics of patients and controls Full size table. Figure 1 Top panel: a voxel-based morphometry VBM findings. Full size image. Figure 2 Diffusion tensor imaging DTI findings. Discussion In this study, three different whole-brain voxel-based imaging techniques identified the medial prefrontal cortex as a prominent site of abnormality in schizophrenia. References 1.

1. Introduction

PubMed Article Google Scholar 5. PubMed Article Google Scholar 6. PubMed Article Google Scholar Article Google Scholar Google Scholar Supplementary information Word documents 1. Supplementary Material.


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About this article Publication history Received 21 August Revised 08 November Accepted 24 November Published 12 January Johnston , Luca Cocchi , Eleni P. Barber , Deepak K. Sarpal , Majnu John , Christina L. Fales , Stewart H. Mostofsky , Anil K. Malhotra , Katherine H. Yeung Journal of Sleep Research Molecular Psychiatry menu. Nature Research menu. Search Article search Search. Unger, K. Working memory gating mechanisms explain developmental change in rule-guided behavior. Cognition, , Desrochers, T. The monitoring and control of task sequences in human and non-human primates.

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Voytek, B. Kayser, A. Oscillatory dynamics coordinating human frontal networks in support of goal maintenance. Nature Neuroscience. Ranti, C. Parallel temporal dynamics in hierarchical cognitive control. Frank, M. How cognitive theory guides neuroscience. Wiecki, T. Journal of Neuroscience, 35 2 , Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning.

Toga and R. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. Multiple gates on working memory. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 1 , Amso, D. Working memory updating and the development of rule-guided behavior. Cognition, 1 , Neuron, 81 4 , Ventral fronto-temporal pathway supporting cognitive control of episodic memory retrieval. Working memory management and predicted utility. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 7 83 , Nyhus, E.

Memory retrieval and the functional organization of frontal cortex. Addis, M. Barense, and A.


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  8. New York: Wiley-Blackwell. Schwarze, U. Ventral striatal activity correlates with memory confidence for old- and new-responses in a difficult recognition task. Satpute, A. Distinct regions of prefrontal cortex are associated with the controlled retrieval and selection of social information.

    Cerebral Cortex , bhs At age 4 months, 34 of them were found to be extremely fearful, timid, and inhibited in temperament, whereas the remaining 42 were found to be the opposite. As the subjects matured, they tended to react to unfamiliar people, objects, and situations as they had in infancy. Schwartz and his coworkers used structural MRI scans to measure the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex in each subject, then compared results from the fearful subjects to those of the nonfearful ones. Nonfearful subjects were found to have a thicker orbitofrontal cortex than fearful subjects.

    This finding made sense, the researchers believed, since this brain region is known to modulate anxiety signals from the amygdala, to suppress unpleasant feelings, and to channel negative emotions into more positive ones. So if a person has a thicker orbitofrontal cortex, he or she might be better able to dampen anxiety and act bolder and with less inhibition than a person with a thinner orbitofrontal cortex.

    The fearful subjects, in contrast, were found to have a thicker ventromedial prefrontal cortex than the nonfearful subjects. This finding also made sense, the researchers suggested, since this brain area is known to be involved in defensive reactions to novel or aversive stimuli and can lead to higher blood pressure and an increased heart rate in response to the unknown. So if an individual has a thicker ventromedial prefrontal cortex, he or she might be more likely to act timidly and with caution when faced with new people or situations than a person with a thinner ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Because imaging data were not collected from the subjects in infancy, these findings cannot address the question of whether the brain structural differences observed in them helped shape the personality traits of fearfulness and nonfearfulness. However, the researchers suspect that it might well be the case. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of a relation between infant temperament and brain structure in either infancy or adulthood.

    The results have implications for psychiatrists, he and his colleagues believe. Research has shown that infants who are fearful may later be vulnerable to internalizing disorders, especially social anxiety disorder. Research has also shown that infants who are nonfearful may develop into people who are relaxed, who adapt easily to change, and who are resilient to anxiety and depression, or into people who engage in externalizing behaviors, such as displaying a hot temper, demonstrating stubbornness, or acting impulsively or aggressively.

    Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging.

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